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Welcome to Sumerian new Grammar

This article is a new grammer of Sumerian.

Thursday, February 3, 2011

LUGAL-AN-UB-DA-RIMMU2-BA a common phrase in Sumerian langage

  In the name of God



the compassionate the merciful


In this post and several another articles, we are going to show , to compare and analysis,( many of the famous and common phrases of Sumerian artificial language, made by sumerologists),by B-dialect and S-dialect, tow dialects of Iranian modern language "farsi" and difference between two languages.( sumer and Iran). But i think ,it does not make any difference.






part 1


LUGAL-AN-UB-DA-LIMMU2-BA


LUGAL-AN-UB-DA-LIMMU2-BA-KE4/(=LIL2)


Those phrases are writing in two form like upper lines, but all of the sumerologists have translated those " the king of the four quarters". Exception of king ur-nammu first king of urIII dynasty, all of kings of that dynasty used those phrases in your tables or scripts.


H.J.L . MSG. p.111. Abou those phrases, John.L.Hayes says:" This particular expression loosely translates as "the four quarters". A literal translation would be: " of the corner-and-side,its four"; anub.da.(k) limmu.bi. As in the expression "king of Sumer and Akkad", there is no conjunction between "corner" and "side". Since these terms are inanimate, the form. bi is used, not .ani.

However, this entire expression is itself the second element of a regular genitive construction: "king (of the four quarters)". The first element in this genitive phrase is lugal. The second element of this genitive phrase is the entire phrase: anub.da.(k) limmu.bi. The second element is then followed by the genitive marker .ak. The /i/ of the possessive-suffix .bi contracts into the /a/ of .ak, producing /bak/, as is the normal practice, is not written. Thus, a literal translation of this entire expression would be: "kingof[of the corner-and-side, its four]: [lugal].[anub.da.(k) limmu. bi].a(k), producing "king of the four quarters".

The anticipatory genitive tends to occur fixed expressions (such as in line 6). In theory, it can be used anywhere a regular genitive could be used, but in practice it is less common. Since the expression "king of four quarers" is quite frequent, is not a problem to recognize it in context. However, non-idiomatic uses of the anticipatory genitive can be quite difficult to recognize. The two clues for its presence are: an otherwise unexplained /a/-vowel, followed a little later by an otherwise unexpected possessive-suffix. Several instances of the anticipatory genitive occur in the following texts.

Discussion: numbers

One of the lexical texts found at Ebla is a small tablet giving the name of the Sumerian numerals from one to ten, spelled more-or-less syllabically. This tablet (TM. 75.G.2198) was apparently some kind of school or practice text. For "four", the tablet says: li-mu,presumably for /limm/.

Typology:

It is more common for S-O-V languages to have a genitive construction of the type .

some read the sign as limu2. in older transliterations, it is frequently transliterated as tabtab. This is still preferred by some modern day Sumerologists.".

His transcriptions of those two Sumerian phrases is:

"lugal.anub.da.(k) limmu.bi.a(k)"

"lugal.anub.da.(k)limmu.bi.ak.e".

Hayes in page 160 about lugal-an-ub-da-limmu2-ba-ke4 says: " 9. lugal-an-ub-da-limmu2-ba-ke4. Cf. line 9 of text 13: lugal-an-ub-da-limmu2-ba. The difference between the two is the presence of the ergative case-maker in Text 14. it was not in present in Text 13, because there was no finite verb form in that text; rather, Text 13 consist of a string of appositives. But in Text 14, all the appositives are part of the nominal phrase expressing the agent of the transitive verb in line 13. As stated in Lesson 1, the nominal phrase to which the case-makers are attached in Sumerian can vary considerably in size-all the way from a single noun, to long complexesas this one: a nine-line nominal phrase.".



In S-dialect

A phrase as lugal-an-ub-da-limmu2-ba/-ke4, is noun+noun+(u)+ b(e)( prefix of emphtic for verb-root, or in the case of the past continous tense- prefix or the present continuous tense , when there is a beginning-consonant of verb-root, immediate afterwards (mi=mu in Sumerian) prefix mi-prefix change to be-prefix and for beginning-consonant e-vowel omit of be-prefix. For example : In S-dialect: pa kib-kona? = pa ki be-kona? = pa-ki me-kona? means " Then, who is doing? Here k-consonat do the phrase as "pa kib kona?"), and in Sumerian phrase da-sign ( root of verb) +limm2=li-mu ( adverb+pronoun, here mu-sign is a plural-pronoun in S-dialect) + ba ( verbal-root of the present continuous tense of "to be". ke4 = lil2 and ke4 is incorrect. lil2 means all( of people).

lugal = a noun-object in case of object.

An+u or ilu +u= of ub( here second u is a 3-single-pronoun, and it is a subject-noun+ a pronoun.

b from ub= is a past or present continous tense-prefix replaced for mu-prafix( see upper please).

da= means root of " to give, to offer".

li= lim= ĥen means" upon , head of…, master, chief, leader. dear,.."

mu= mu(n) means a plural- pronoun in case of postposition-pronoun.

ba= is a root of "to be" means "is" or" will be".

lil2= means "all"( people).

Then, in the S-dialect : lugal.Iluub.da.ĥen-mu(n). ba.lil2 means" king. (whom) Ilu (Alla "god' he) is giving us, (that king) is chief of us all.



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Monday, January 3, 2011

The sumerian king list part 2

A new translation of the Sumerian king list. part 2




Now that we have clarified, at least to some extent, the method and procedures by which we have called, comparison the B-dialect and S-dialect with the Sumerian grammar and language.

Let us start with one of the famous writing of sumerian, mythological,historical,and literary style " the Sumerian king list". My translation is completely according to which one of expressions of inscription. please see lower part:



The Sumerian king list

transliteration                                                              translation  

1.[nam]-lugal Ilu ta ed3-de3-a-ba
 as long as (God) Ilu he would be being given (the) kingdom.

2. /eridug\ki nam-lugal-la
(the) Eridu place (city, town) is (have) kingdom.

3.eridug(ki) ed lu-lim lugal
(in) Eridu place is Lulim king.

4. mu 28800 ni-aka (nia-ka)
 the 28800 month ago.

5. ed lal3-gar mu 36000 nia-ka
 (the king) Lalgar is 36000 month (before he) ago.

6. 2 lugal                                                           2 kings,

7. mu- 64000 nia-ka
 are becoming (totally) the 64000 (month) ago.

8. eridug(ki) ba-šub
 ( then,) Eridu place is fallen.



9. nam-lugal bi bad3 tibira(ki)-še
a kingdom was its place (was) castle of Tibira place.

10. ba-ra2                                          is built. (is finished = he finished)

11. bad3 tibira(ki )en-me-en lu2- ilu na
 (the) castle of Tibira place my great(man) Luilu built.or/ my great man Ilu built.

12. mu 43200 nia-ka
 the 43200 month ago.

13.en-me-en gal-ilu na
my great (man) big Ilu built.

14. mu 28800 nia-ka
the 28800 month ago.( before he)

15. (d)dumu-zid(ilu-domo-zi) sipad ( šap2= šabu?) mu 36000 nia-ka
(the) shepherd Iludomozi (follower of God method) 36000 month ago.( before they)

16. 3 lugal                                                           3 kings,

17. mu-bi 108000 nia-ka
are becoming (totally) the108000 (month) ago.

18.bad3 tibira(ki=gu14) ba-šub-be2-en
 ( then,) castle(s) place were fallen.



19. nam-lugal-bi la-ra-ag(ki)-še3 ba-ra2
a kingdom was, its place (was) Larag. is built. (is finished = he finished)

20. la-ra-ag(ki) en-sipad zi- ilu na
(the) larag place( city) great shepherd Ilu-follower built.

21. mu 28800 nia-ka
the 28800 month ago.

22. 1 lugal                                                            1 king.

23. mu-bi 28800 nia-ka
 is becoming (totally) the 28800 month ago.

24. la-ra-ag(ki) ba-šub-be2-en                          Larag place(s) were fallen.



25.nam-lugal-bi zimbir(ki)-še3 ba-ra2
 a kingdom was its place (was ) Zimbir is built. (is finished = he finished)

26. zimbir(ki) en-me-en dur2(tur7)-ilu na
(the ) Zimbir place, my great Ilu-tur ( strong god ilu) built.

27. lugal a-an mu 21000 nia-ka
that one (they) king (was) the 21000 month ago,

28. 1 lugal                                                               1 king,

29. mu-bi 21000 nia-ka
 is becoming (totally) the 21000 month ago.

30. zimbir(ki) ba-šub-be2-en
(the ) Zimbir place(s) were fallen.

31. nam-lugal-bi šuruppag(ki)-<še3> ba-ra2
a kingdom was , its place (was) Shurupak( the holy flood). is built. (is finished = he finished)

32. šuruppagki ubara-tu3-tu3
Shurupak place (by) Ubaratutu (was built).

33.lugal-a-an mu 18600 nia-ka
that one king (was) 18600 month ago.

34. 1 lugal                                                               1 king,

35. mu-bi 18600 nia-ka
 is becoming (totally) the 18600( month) ago.

36. 5 uru(ki)-me(we?)-eš
5 place of those cities .

37. 8 lugal                                                               8 king(s),

38. mu- 241200 ib2-aka(iba-ka)
 is becoming (totally) 241200 it was taking the ( times/monthes).

39. a-ma-ru ba ur3-
(then) water of channels, were flood swept over.

end of part 2:

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Thursday, December 2, 2010

A new translation of the sumerian king list ,part 1

In the name of God


the compassionate the merciful

This article is on the subjects of sumerin words : i3-ak or ni-ak and ni-aka, mu-bi, ib2-ak and egir3-aka, ba-de6 or bi6-ra2, …and so forth, coupled with this, i would like to show a new translation of the Sumerian king list and composite text, and to compare with "the Sumerian king list ( translation and composite text) in ETCSL ( the electronic text corpus of Sumerian literature). my based or supported for comparison are some dialects of farsi or Persian language.

1- i3 sign is incorrect in Sumerian sign list, ni sign is correct. because, by that application of i3 in word of i3-ak, the translator has translated that word, like a verbal-phrase. but ni-ak or ni-aka in S-dialect and B-dialect is a temporal- adverb + a definite article (analyze of ni-aka= nia-ka) nia-ka means " before the time" ak-sign in those dialects is a sign for noun-diminutive. I think, that is right in Sumerian grammar,namely, ak-sign in Sumerian is not a genitive case. ( in the future, about genitive case in those dialects, i will discuss a few informations.).



2- in the Sumerian king list (composite text) mu-bi is not means "that year", because, here mu-sign is a indicator for the present continuous tense. and bi-sign is verbal- root-inflective of "to be". here mu-bi means "it is" = farsi " mishavad,or mibashad".

3- ib2-aka (= i-ba-ka ) is a verbal- passive- phrase- for the future continuous in the past tense passive, and means " he /or (the name) would be being been.(king). but egir3-ak(= e-gir3-a-ka) means " he/ or (the name) woud be being conquered.

Please pay attention " bi,bu, and ba are roots of verbal "to be" for bi-future , bu- past tense and ba-sign- passive case.

4- ba-de6 = ba-ra2 or wa2-ra2 means " it be completed".

end of part 1.

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plea see down; a transtion of ETCSL:
a ________________________________________


The Sumerian king list

(in the following translation, mss. are referred to by the sigla used by Vincente 1995; from those listed there, mss. Fi, Go, P6, and WB 62 were not used; if not specified by a note, numerical data come from ms. WB)

1-39. After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alalĝar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years. Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira. In Bad-tibira, En-men-lu-ana ruled for 43200 years. En-men-gal-ana ruled for 28800 years. Dumuzid, the shepherd, ruled for 36000 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 108000 years. Then Bad-tibira fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Larag. In Larag, En-sipad-zid-ana ruled for 28800 years. 1 king; he ruled for 28800 years. Then Larag fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Zimbir. In Zimbir, En-men-dur-ana became king; he ruled for 21000 years. 1 king; he ruled for 21000 years. Then Zimbir fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Šuruppag. In Šuruppag, Ubara-Tutu became king; he ruled for 18600 years. 1 king; he ruled for 18600 years. In 5 cities 8 kings; they ruled for 241200 years. Then the flood swept over.

40-94. After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kiš. In Kiš, Ĝušur became king; he ruled for 1200 years. Kullassina-bēl ruled for {960} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 900} years. Nanĝišlišma ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) {670} (?) years. En-taraḫ-ana ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) {420} years ……, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days. Babum …… ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) {300} years. Puannum ruled for {840} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 240} years. Kalibum ruled for {960} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 900} years. Kalūmum ruled for {840} {(mss. P3+BT14, Su1 have instead:) 900} years. Zuqāqīp ruled for {900} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 600} years. (in mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5, the 10th and 11th rulers of the dynasty precede the 8th and 9th) {Atab} {(mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5 have instead:) A-ba} ruled for 600 years. Mašda, the son of Atab, ruled for {840} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 720} years. Arwium, the son of Mašda, ruled for 720 years. Etana, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries, became king; he ruled for {1500} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 635} years. Baliḫ, the son of Etana, ruled for {400} {(mss. P2+L2, Su1 have instead:) 410} years. En-me-nuna ruled for {660} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 621} years. Melem-Kiš, the son of En-me-nuna, ruled for 900 years. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1560 are the years of the dynasty of En-me-nuna.} {Barsal-nuna, the son of En-me-nuna,} {(mss. P5, P3+BT14 have instead:) Barsal-nuna} ruled for 1200 years. Zamug, the son of Barsal-nuna, ruled for 140 years. Tizqār, the son of Zamug, ruled for 305 years. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1620 + X …….} Ilku ruled for 900 years. Iltasadum ruled for 1200 years. En-me-barage-si, who made the land of Elam submit, became king; he ruled for 900 years. Aga, the son of En-me-barage-si, ruled for 625 years. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1525 are the years of the dynasty of En-me-barage-si.} 23 kings; they ruled for 24510 years, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days. Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana.

95-133. In E-ana, Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer, the son of Utu, became lord and king; he ruled for {324} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 325} years. Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer entered the sea and disappeared. Enmerkar, the son of Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer, the king of Unug, {who built Unug} {(mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have instead:) under whom Unug was built}, became king; he ruled for {420} {(ms. TL has instead:) 900 + X} years. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 745 are the years of the dynasty of Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer.} {(ms TL adds instead:) ……; he ruled for 5 + X years.} Lugalbanda, the shepherd, ruled for 1200 years. Dumuzid, the fisherman whose city was Kuara, ruled for {100} {(ms. TL has instead:) 110} years. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) He captured En-me-barage-si single-handed.} Gilgameš, whose father was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba, ruled for 126 years. Ur-Nungal, the son of Gilgameš, ruled for 30 years. Udul-kalama, the son of {Ur-Nungal} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) Ur-lugal}, ruled for 15 years. Lā-ba’šum ruled for 9 years. En-nun-taraḫ-ana ruled for 8 years. Meš-ḫe, the smith, ruled for 36 years. {Melem-ana} {(ms. Su2 has instead:) Til-kug (?) ……} ruled for {6} {(ms. Su2 has instead:) 900} years. Lugal-kitun (?) ruled for {36} {(ms. Su2 has instead:) 420} years. 12 kings; they ruled for {2310} {(ms. Su2 has instead:) 3588} years. Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.

134-147. In Urim, Meš-Ane-pada became king; he ruled for 80 years. {Meš-ki-aĝ-Nanna} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) Meš-ki-aĝ-nuna}, the son of Meš-Ane-pada, became king; he ruled for {36} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 30} years. Elulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) {25} years. Balulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) {36} years. (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have:) {4} kings; they ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) {171} years. Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan.

148-159. In Awan, …… became king; he ruled for …… years. …… ruled for …… years. …… ruled for 36 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 356 years. Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kiš.

160-178. In Kiš, Susuda, the fuller, became king; he ruled for 201 + X years. Dadasig ruled for (ms. vD has:) {81} years. Mamagal, the boatman, ruled for {360} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 420} years. Kalbum, the son of {Mamagal} {(ms. WB has instead:) Magalgal}, ruled for {195} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 132} years. Tuge (?) ruled for 360 years. Men-nuna {,(ms. L1+N1 adds:) the son of Tuge (?),} ruled for 180 years. (in mss. L1+N1, TL, the 7th and 8th rulers of the dynasty are in reverse order) …… ruled for 290 years. Lugalĝu ruled for {360} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 420} years. 8 kings; they ruled for {3195} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 3792} years. Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to Ḫamazi.

179-185. In Ḫamazi, Hadaniš became king; he ruled for 360 years. 1 king; he ruled for 360 years. Then Ḫamazi was defeated and the kingship {was taken} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) was returned a second time} to Unug.

(in mss. IB, L1+N1, TL, the 2nd dynasty of Unug of lines 185-191 is preceded by the 2nd dynasty of Urim of lines 192-203)

186-192. In Unug, En-šag-kuš-ana became king; he ruled for 60 years. {Lugal-ure} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) Lugal-kiniše-dudu (?)} ruled for 120 years. Argandea ruled for 7 years. (ms. L1+N1 has:) {3} kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) {187} years. Then Unug was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Urim.

193-204. In Urim, Nanni became king; he ruled for {(ms. vD has:) 120 + X} {(ms. IB has instead:) 54 + X} years. Meš-ki-aĝ-Nanna, the son of Nanni, ruled for (ms. vD has:) {48} years. {……, the son (?) of ……, ruled for (ms. IB has:) {2} years. (ms. IB has:) {3} kings; they ruled for {(ms. IB has:) 582} {(ms. TL has instead:) 578} years.} {(ms. vD has instead:) 2 kings; they ruled for 120 + X years.} Then Urim was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Adab.

205-210. In Adab, Lugal-Ane-mundu became king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) {90} years. (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) {1} king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) {90} years. Then Adab was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Mari.

211-223. In Mari, Anbu (?) became king; he ruled for {30} {(ms. TL has instead:) 90} years. Anba (?), the son of Anbu (?), ruled for {17} {(ms. TL has instead:) 7} years. Bazi, the leatherworker, ruled for 30 years. Zizi, the fuller, ruled for 20 years. Limer, the gudug priest, ruled for 30 years. Šarrum-īter ruled for {9} {(ms. TL has instead:) 7} years. 6 kings; they ruled for {136} {(ms. TL has instead:) 184} years. Then Mari was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Kiš.

224-231. In Kiš, Kug-Bau, the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kiš, became king; she ruled for 100 years. 1 king; she ruled for 100 years. Then Kiš was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Akšak.

232-243. In Akšak, Unzi became king; he ruled for 30 years. Undalulu ruled for {6} {(mss. L1+N1, S have instead:) 12} years. Urur {ruled for} {(ms. IB has instead:) was king (?) for} 6 years. Puzur-Niraḫ ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) {20} years. Išu-Il ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) {24} years. Šu-Suen, the son of Išu-Il, ruled for {(mss. IB, L1+N1, S, TL have:) 7} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 24} years. {(mss. S, Su1, TL have:) {6} kings; they ruled for {(mss. L1+N1, S, TL have:) 99} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 116} years} {(ms. IB has instead:) 5 kings; they ruled for (ms. IB has:) {87} years}. {Then Akšak was defeated} {(ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Akšak was abolished} and the kingship was taken to Kiš.

(mss. IB, S, Su1, Su3+Su4 list the 3rd and 4th dynasty of Kiš of lines 224-231 and lines 244-258, respectively, as one dynasty)

244-258. In Kiš, Puzur-Suen, the son of Kug-Bau, became king; he ruled for 25 years. Ur-Zababa, the son of Puzur-Suen, ruled for {400} {(mss. P3+BT14, S have instead:) 6} {(ms. IB has instead:) 4 + X} years. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 131 are the years of the dynasty of Kug-Bau.} {Zimudar} {(ms. TL has instead:) Ziĝu-iake} ruled for {30} {(ms. IB has instead:) 30 + X} years. Usi-watar, the son of {Zimudar} {(ms. TL has instead:) Ziĝu-iake}, ruled for {7} {(ms. S has instead:) 6} years. Eštar-muti ruled for {11} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 17 (?)} years. Išme-Šamaš ruled for 11 years. {(ms. Su1 adds:) Šu-ilīšu ruled for 15 years.} {Nanniya, the jeweller,} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) Zimudar} {(ms. IB has instead:) ……} ruled for {7} {(ms. S has instead:) 3} years. {7 kings; they ruled for {491} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 485} years} {(ms. S has instead:) 8 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) {586} years}. {Then Kiš was defeated} {(ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Kiš was abolished} and the kingship {was taken} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) was returned a third time} to Unug.

(ms. IB omits the 3rd dynasty of Unug of lines 258-263)

259-265. In Unug, Lugal-zage-si became king; he ruled for {25} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) 34} years. 1 king; he ruled for {25} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) 34} years. {Then Unug was defeated} {(ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Unug was abolished} and the kingship was taken to Agade.

266-296. In Agade, Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, {who built Agade} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) under whom Agade was built}; he ruled for {56} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 55} {(ms. TL has instead:) 54} years. Rīmuš, the son of Sargon, ruled for {9} {(ms. IB has instead:) 7} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 15} years. Man-ištiššu, the older brother of Rīmuš, the son of Sargon, ruled for {15} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 7} years. Narām-Suen, the son of Man-ištiššu, ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P3+BT14 have:) {56} years. Šar-kali-šarrī, the son of Narām-Suen, ruled for {(ms. L1+N1, Su+Su4 have:) 25} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) 24} years. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 157 are the years of the dynasty of Sargon.} Then {who was the king? Who was not the king?} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) who was the king? Who indeed was the king?} Irgigi was king, Imi was king, Nanûm was king (in mss. L1+N1, Su3+Su4, Imi and Nanûm are in reverse order) , Ilulu was king, and the (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) {4} of them ruled for only (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) {3} years. Dudu ruled for 21 years. Šu-Durul, the son of Dudu, ruled for {15} {(ms. IB has instead:) 18} years. {11 kings; they ruled for 181 years} {(ms. S has instead:) 12 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) {197} years} {(mss. Su1, Su3+Su4, which omit Dudu and Šu-Durul, have instead:) 9 kings; they ruled for {(ms. Su1 has:) 161} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 177} years}. {Then Agade was defeated} {(ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Agade was abolished} and the kingship was taken to Unug.

297-307. In Unug, Ur-niĝin became king; he ruled for {7} {(mss. IB, S have instead:) 3} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 15} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 30} years. Ur-gigir, the son of Ur-niĝin, ruled for {6} {(ms. IB has instead:) 7} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 15} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 7} years. Kuda ruled for 6 years. Puzur-ilī ruled for {5} {(ms. IB has instead:) 20} years. {Ur-Utu ruled for 6} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) Ur-Utu, the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 25} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) Lugal-melem, the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 7} years. {5 kings; they ruled for {30} {(ms. IB has instead:) 43} {(mss. P&s4;+Ha, S have instead:) 26} years} {(ms. Su3+Su4, which omits Kuda and Puzur-ilī, has instead:) 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. Su3+Su4 has:) {47} years}. {Unug was defeated} {(ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Unug was abolished} and the kingship was taken to the {army} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) land} of Gutium.

308-334. In the {army} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) land} of Gutium, at first {no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) they had no king; they ruled themselves for 5 years}. Then {Inkišuš} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) ……} ruled for {6} {(ms. L1+Ni1 has instead:) 7} years. Zarlagab ruled for 6 years. {Šulme} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) Yarlagaš} ruled for 6 years. {Silulumeš} {(ms. Mi has instead:) Silulu} ruled for {6} {(ms. G has instead:) 7} years. {Inimabakeš ruled for 5} {(ms. Mi has instead:) Duga ruled for 6} years. {Igešauš ruled for 6} {(ms. Mi has instead:) Ilu-an (?) ruled for 3} years. Yarlagab ruled for {15} {(ms. Mi has instead:) 5} years. Ibate ruled for 3 years. {Yarla} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) Yarlangab (?)} ruled for 3 years. {Kurum} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) ……} ruled for {1} {(ms. Mi has instead:) 3} years. Apilkin ruled for 3 years. Lā-erabum (?) ruled for 2 years. Irarum ruled for 2 years. Ibranum ruled for 1 year. Ḫablum ruled for 2 years. Puzur-Suen, the son of Ḫablum, ruled for 7 years. Yarlaganda ruled for 7 years. …… ruled for 7 years. Tirigan (?) ruled for 40 days. 21 kings; they ruled for {(ms. L1+N1 has:) 124 years and 40 days} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 25 years}. Then the army of Gutium was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Unug.

335-340. In Unug, Utu-ḫeĝal became king; he ruled for {427 years, …… days} {(ms. IB has instead:) 26 years, 2 + X months, and 15 days} {(ms. J has instead:) 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days} {(ms. TL has instead:) 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days}. 1 king; he ruled for {427 years, …… days} {(ms. J has instead:) 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days} {(ms. TL has instead:) 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days}. Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.

341-354. In Urim, Ur-Namma became king; he ruled for 18 years. Šulgi, the son of Ur-Namma, ruled for {46} {(mss. Su3+Su4, TL have instead:) 48} {(ms. P5 has instead:) 58} years. Amar-Suena, the son of Šulgi, ruled for {9} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 25} years. Šu-Suen, the son of Amar-Suena, ruled for {9} {(ms. P5 has instead:) 7} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 20 + X} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 16} years. Ibbi-Suen, the son of Šu-Suen, ruled for {24} {(mss. P5, Su1 have instead:) 25} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 15} {(ms. TL has instead:) 23 (?)} years. {4 kings; they ruled for 108 years} {(mss. J, P5, Su1, Su3+Su4 have instead:) 5 kings; they ruled for {(ms. P5 has:) 117} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 120 + X} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 123} years}. {Then Urim was defeated} {(ms. P5 has instead:) Then the reign of Urim was abolished}. {(ms. Su3+Su4 adds:) The very foundation of Sumer was torn out (?).} The kingship was taken to Isin.

355-377. In Isin, Išbi-Erra became king; he ruled for {33} {(ms. P5 has instead:) 32} years. Šu-ilīšu, the son of Išbi-Erra, ruled for {20} {(ms. P5 has instead:) 10} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 15} years. Iddin-Dagan, the son of Šu-ilīšu, ruled for {21} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 25} years. Išme-Dagan, the son of Iddin-Dagan, ruled for {(mss. P2, P5 have:) 20} {(ms. Mi has instead:) 18} years. Lipit-Eštar, the son of {Išme-Dagan} {(ms. P2 has instead:) Iddin-Dagan}, ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2, P5 have:) {11} years. Ur-Ninurta {(mss. L1+N1, P2 add:) , the son of Iškur -- may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life --} ruled for (ms. P5 has:) {28} years. Būr-Suen, the son of Ur-Ninurta, ruled for 21 years. Lipit-Enlil, the son of Būr-Suen, ruled for 5 years. Erra-imitti ruled for {8} {(mss. P5, TL have instead:) 7} years. {(ms. P5 adds:) …… ruled for …… 6 months.} Enlil-bāni ruled for 24 years. Zambiya ruled for 3 years. Iter-piša ruled for 4 years. Ur-du-kuga ruled for 4 years. Suen-magir ruled for 11 years. {(ms. P5 adds:) Damiq-ilišu, the son of Suen-magir, ruled for 23 years.} 14 kings; they ruled for {203 years} {(ms. P5 has instead:) 225 years and 6 months}.

(mss. P2+L2, L1+N1 and P4+Ha conclude with a summary of the post-diluvian dynasties; the translation of lines 378-431 uses numerical data from each mss. but follows the wording of P2+L2 and L1+N1)

378-431. A total of 39 kings ruled for 14409 + X years, 3 months and 3 1/2 days, 4 times in Kiš. A total of 22 kings ruled for 2610 + X years, 6 months and 15 days, 5 times in Unug. A total of 12 kings ruled for 396 years, 3 times in Urim. A total of 3 kings ruled for 356 years, once in Awan. A total of 1 king ruled for 420 years, once in Ḫamazi.

16 lines missing

A total of 12 (?) kings ruled for 197 (?) years, once in Agade. A total of {21} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 23} kings ruled for {125 years and 40 days} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 99 years}, once in the army of Gutium. A total of {11} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 16} kings ruled for {159} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 226} years, once in Isin. There are 11 cities, cities in which the kingship was exercised. A total of {134} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 139} kings, who altogether ruled for {28876 + X} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 3443 + X} years. 21.

Thursday, August 5, 2010

am3 or a-an



In the name of  God
the compassionate the merciful
Here, i would like to discuss about " copula verb" in Sumerian and , I have compared one of that mode "am3' with dialects of the north of Persian gulf, especially  i show the S-dialect.
Hayes. L.J. 122.1990. has said:"Sumerian has two ways to express the copula. The first way , which is in fact relatively uncommon, is to inflect the verbal root meaning "to be" (me); it thus behaves like a regular verb. This is sometimes called the "independent copula". The second way, which is much more common, is to use a reduced form of this root as a suffix, instead of as an independent verb. This is called the "enclitic copula". For the third person, this consists of am ( usually written[ a-sign +an-sign = am3]) suffixed to the second element of an equational sentence.
Thus, "Nanna is king" is: Nanna.lugal.am, written: dNanna-lugal-am3;" Baba is queen" is:Baba. nin.am, written, dBa-ba6-nin-am3 (In pre-Ur III texts, the enclitic copula is regularly written an-sign , read as am6.)".
With regard to "me"the verbal root meaning "to be", i would like to express my opinion in the future.

 About copula verb, Poebel. Arno, Sumerische Grammatik,1923 ,§ 280. p102. has said:"Die mit -me-(e)n "ich bin"," du bist", -am"er ist" usw. gebildeten Identifikationen warden, sie in relativischem Sinne gebraucht sind, nicht mit dem Relativ-a versehen.
    Vgl. Hammurabi-šeg-a-dUtu(-k)-men, ĥu-mu-na(-')-du3 "ich, Hammurabi, der ich der Gűnstling des Šamaš bin, habe es ihm, fűrwahr erbaut", LIH 5833-40; Meskingašer,-en-am3,-lugal-am3 325 mu I(-n)â "Meskingašer, welcher Enu und könig war, regierte 325 Jahre, HGT 2 KOL. 25-6.

In two dialects B&;S Hammurabi- šeg?-a-dawtu-wen, ĥu-mu-na-du3 , means" Hammurabi is center (heart, mind) of sun of Ilu, that he(Ilu) was building."
1: -a = of
2: wen = is
3: ĥu, is an affirmative conjunction
And,  Meskingašer,-(h)en-a-an , lugal-a-an 325 mo (h)ia.  means: Meskingašer, the most greatest of that one (Ilu), king of that one (Ilu), was 325 month.  

Edzard. Otto. Dietz. Sumerian Grammar. 2003, § 12.7.1.1, p83. He has said :" The [a] of [am] may be superseded by a preceding vowel: -bi-im [bi-(a)m]” “it is its (. . .)”; -zu-um [zu-(a)m] “it is your (. . .)”. It is unlikely that there was an original distribution of two forms: [am] after C and [m] after V because we find, e.g., hé-àm.
[am] was written by AN in OS, transliterated as am6. From the frequent combination of the nominalizing particle [a] + copula [am], -a-am6 [a’am] the more recent (Ur III) spelling A.AN = àm arose, probably after the hiatus originally present in [a’am] had disappeared, resulting in [âm].
After the genitive particle [ak] and after [d] or [n], the CVC cuneograms kam, dam, and nam are normally used: za-a-kam [za(e)-(a)k-am] “it is yours”, min-nam [min-am] “it is two”.
For enclitic [am] derivation from *i-m(e) (or *a-m(e)), i.e., a reduced free form with prefixed particle [i] or [a] has been proposed: Poebel 1923, 72 ff., followed by Falkenstein 1949, 147. A heteronymous form is, however, more probable, because heteronymy in the copula conjugation is also found in other languages, e.g., Indo-European.

Now, please see a few examples of below:


ETCSLtransliteration : c.1.1.1     Enki and Ninursaĝa
iriki kug-kug-ga-am3 e-ne ba-am3-me-en-ze2-en kur dilmunki kug-ga-am3 .
uru gu14 kog-kog-ga a-an. e-ne-ba  a-an me-en-se-en kor Dilmun gu14 a-an.
ki-en-gi kug-ga e-ne ba-am3-me-en-ze2-en kur dilmunki kug-ga-am3 .
gu14-(h)en-gi kog-ga e-ne-ba  a-an  me-en-se-en kor Dilmun kog-ga  a-an.
kur dilmunki kug-ga-am3 kur dilmun sikil-am3
kor Dilmun gu14 kog/k-k/ga a-an, kor Dilmmun šekil a  an.
kur dilmunki sikil-am3 kur dilmunki dadag-ga-am3
kor Dilmun gu14  šekil a  an, kor Dilmun gu14  utuzalag-ga a-an

translation by B& S dialects:
1: That one town place is  high,high ( very holy)[ a of ga means 'is' and a-an =am3 means 'that one] . That one will be building  Dilmun place in those territories, that one  is high.

2: Sumer is high,  that one will be building  Dilmun place in those territories, that one is high.

3:Territory (of) Dilmun place, that one is high.  That one Dilmun is nice.

4: That territory (of) Dilmun place is nice,  that one is  sun shine .




ki-bi sikil-am3 ki-bi dadag-ga-am3
ki-bi sikil-am3 ki-bi dadag-ga-am3
ud 1-am3 itid 1-am3
ud 2-am3 itid 2-am3
ud 9-am3 itid 9-am3 itid nam-munus-a-ka
ĝiri3-ni 1-am3 ma2-a bi2-gub
ĝiri3-ni 1-a-an ma2-a bi2-ra2


7: That one place  was nice. It place was , (and) that one is sun shine.
10 is like 7.
102: That one 1 day . That one 1 month. ( 1 month +1 day)
103: That one 2 day . That one 2 month. ( 2 month +2 day)
104: That one 9 day . That one 9 month. ( 9 month +9 day). the month of femininity (childbirth)
126L: That  1 his/her/its foot, don't come (then) go.
You can see full translation and transliteration in ETCSl.

Therefore,  a-an means ' that one'  and not is a copula mood verb, then " am3" is incorrect.
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Thursday, July 8, 2010

Sumerian verbal prefixs,imma- and immi- for "to come"

In Sumerian verbs, like B-dialect ma=wa is root of past-tense of "to come" and the simple past tense, and mi=wi is root of present-future-tense . but,in conversation and writing,they rarely have, or have not anything like " ma" for 'he/she/it came',or "mi=wi" for 'he/she/it come' in 'aorist-stem, or the simple past tense.they mostly used to show "ima=im-ma or iwa=iw-wa",that is to say "he/she/it came",and 'he/she/it was coming', and they have been showed imi=im-mi=iw-wi , to say he/she/it come or he/she/it is coming. or example for the past tense:"im-ma-ra2" means 'he/she/it came,(and) went.' or he/she/it was coming,(and) going.'; "im-ma-du(n)g4" means he/she came to speak(began to speak).or he/she was coming to speak.Example for the present-future-tense:" im-mi(=imi) means'he/she/it come', and 'he/she/it is coming.' ; im-mi-re6 means he/she/it come (and)go. he/she/it is coming (and) going.


see below about Sumerian "moods" for 'to come' in B-dialect,S-dialect and Farsi:

"to come moods in B-dialect:

continuous past tense:

1sg * iwa/*ima/* e/omma/ imma (-m),-im,-do-om /*iwwa/(-m), im, -d-om.

2sg iwa/ima/ewa /imma/iwwa/emma/owwa/emma /-id-i

3 sg iwa/ima/oma/owa/-id-Ø

1pl iwa/oma/owa/-id-im ?

2pl iwa/ima/imam/iwwa/ id-in

3pl iwa/ima/imam/-id-en

Note1:-id- and-d-(-id-) are indicators of past tense and present-tense, and -om,-i,Ø are indicators of morphomes of single person,and -m,in,en are indicaturs of morpheme of plural-personal.

Here, i think in verbs of plural forms in old period times,ima,imma,imi ,immi and other forms for personal- plural have a syllable like 'an,un,or in',and they have not anything as '-im,-in and en ,suffixes forms, or have two cases , forms for plural- personal like those infixes and suffixes in up, if have. then infixes of 'an,un,or in' have not necessary and they are omitted.

But in simple forms as e-na-an-ra2 means' they were putting in working order' or e-na-an-dug4 means ' they were beginning to speak Those verbal forms,in the B- dialect are. Still alive.

simple past tense

1 sg wa/ *ma by /-im/-id-om suffix(*very rarely) 2 sg wa/*ma / by-id-i suffix * m(* ")

3 sg wa-id-Ø

1 pl wa-id-im or wa-in-di-im?

2 pl wa-id-in " wa-in-de-in?

2 pl wa-id-en " wa-in-de-en?



Note2:-id- is an indicator of past tense and present-tense. and -im,-i and-Ø are indicators of morphemes of single personal,and-im,-in and -en are indicator of morpheme of plural-personal.

simple past tense in Farsi:

1- sg ama-d-am

2-sg ama-d-i

3- sg ama-d-Ø

1- pl ama-d-im

2-pl ama-d-id

3-pl ama-d-an-d

Note3: -d- (id) is an indicator of past tense and present-tense, and -am.-i andØ are indicator of morpheme of plural-personal. In modern farsi, 'an' sign for plural- personal is found in 3- pl ama-d-an-d. means 'they came'.

In persent-future-tense " imi=iwi" or"im-mi=iw-wi"are replaced instead of ima,imma.for example:

3- pl immi-d-en means"they come"," they are coming"; 'they shall be coming'
End of part 1 please follow me.
F.Abbasi.

See under exmpels in Sumerian:

The grammar of perspective" by Christipher Woods.volume 32 brill Leiden. Boston 2008.chapter four ,imma- and immi- p165-167.[182]-[190].